Atlantic Neptune Part 1 – Item 16 of 23

J.F.W. Des Barres, “References” from The Atlantic Neptune, 1777.
Des Barres included a legend or sheet of “references” at the beginning of each volume of The Atlantic Neptune. This innovative and instructive sheet provided mariners with visual explanations to the various symbols used throughout the Neptune, as an understanding of the details illustrated on the charts was essential to safe navigation. The “references” contain descriptions of coastal topography, directions of tides, and locations of underwater dangers and anchoring places, in an attempt to better serve the navigators who would use the charts to sail along the North American coast.