Boston Public Library
Exhibitions

View the Exhibition

Boston was the metropolis of Great Britain’s North American colonies, with the largest population and one of the busiest economies of any urban center through the 1750s. It was also the leading producer of printed maps, including major milestones such as the first map printed in the colonies, as well as the earliest city map, battle plan, and map engraved on copper.

This exhibition brings together, for the first time in decades, a majority of these maps “made in Boston” in the century before the American Revolution. As a group they are remarkable for their contributions to geographical knowledge and often unconventional style.

These maps also afford a unique perspective on the ambitions, anxieties and sense of identity of colonial Bostonians: pride in their flourishing city, the hazards of navigating New England’s coast, disputes over land ownership, and struggle with the native inhabitants and French for mastery of North America.

Printable gallery guide

Mapping New England

From the earliest days of settlement, New England comprised several semi-autonomous colonies. Each had its own government and to some degree its own culture, and at times they competed fiercely. Yet they shared an identity as “New Englanders,” responsible for establishing a foothold in North America, where they would be free to enjoy both the rights of Englishmen and the freedoms and material wealth of the New World. This regional identity is evident from some of their earliest maps, which reveal their attempts to impose order on a vast, mysterious and often terrifying wilderness.

John Foster
A Map of New-England, Being the First That Ever Was Here Cut…, 1677
Cyprian Southack
[A New Chart of the English Empire in North America], 1717
An Explanation on the Prospect Draft of Fort William & Mary on Piscataqua River in ye Province of New Hampshire on the Continent of America, 1705 William Douglass
This Plan of the British Dominions of New England in North America, Composed from Actual Surveys, [1755]
Thomas Jefferys
A Map of the Most Inhabited Part of New England…, 1755/1759

Mapping Boston

As the leading city of British North America, it was fitting that colonial Boston was the subject of several fine maps and views. The first was the “Bonner plan,” which appeared in 1722 and was the first city plan published in the Colonies. It was such a commercial success that it had but one competitor, a derivative and short-lived engraving published by William Burgis in 1728. Two magnificent views, reflecting very different interpretations of Boston’s position in the British Empire, were published by Burgis in 1725 and Paul Revere in 1768.

John Bonner
The Town of Boston in New England, [1725-1728]
William Burgis
… Boston N. Engd. Planted A.D. MDCXXX, [1728]
William Price
A New Plan of Ye Great Town of Boston in New England in America, 1769
William Burgis
A South East View of Ye Great Town of Boston in New England in America, 1743
Paul Revere
A View of Part of the Town of Boston in New-England and British Ships of War Landing Their Troops!, [1770]
John Bonner, Capt., [ca. 1690]

Cyprian Southack

Southack arrived in Boston in the 1680s and was active for decades as a naval captain, privateer, navigator, diplomat, “fixer” and map maker. Most of this activity was in service of Massachusetts in particular and the British Empire in general, as it aimed to seize Canada from the French while preventing them and their native allies from ravaging New England’s coast. Southack was extremely well travelled, and was well acquainted with the waters between New York and Quebec. Exhibiting great durability and good fortune he lived to the age of 84, despite the rigors of his service.

[Cyprian Southack]
Boston Harbor in New England, [1689]
Augustine Fitzhugh
A Draught of Boston Harbour by Capt. Cyprian Southake, 1694, 1884
Phillip Wells
This Harbour of Boston with Soundings Without & Comings Within…, [1686-89?]
Cyprian Southack
An Actual Survey of the Sea Coast from New York to the I. Cape Briton, ca. 1729/[1758?]
Cyprian Southack
The Harbour of Casco Bay and Islands Adjacent, 1720

Contest for Empire

Eighteenth-century North America was the scene of a global struggle for empire between France, Great Britain, Spain, and the tens of thousands of Native Americans who had survived the depredations and plagues of the 17th century. Bostonians were deeply involved in this conflict, fighting the French and their native allies as far afield as New York, Maine, Nova Scotia and the St. Lawrence. Displayed here are several maps reflecting Boston’s role in King George’s War (1744-48) and the French and Indian War (1754-1763).

Richard Gridley
A Plan of the City and Fortress of Louisbourg with a Small Plan of the Harbour, 1746
Thomas Johnston
A Chart of Canada River, 1746
James Turner
This Map of the Coasts of Nova-Scotia and Parts Adjacent…, [ca. 1750]
Samuel Blodget
A Prospective Plan of the Battle Fought Near Lake George on the 8th of September 1755…, [1755]
Samuel Blodget
A Prospective View of the Battle Fought Near Lake George on the 8th of Septr. 1755, 1756
Timothy Clement
This Plan of Hudsons Rivr: from Albany to Fort Edward, 1756
Thomas Johnston
Quebec, The Capital of New-France, a Bishoprick, and Seat of the Soverain Court, [1759]

Contest for Land

Carelessly-written land grants, primitive surveying instruments and methods, and sheer greed all contributed to boundary disputes, both within and between Britain’s North American colonies. These provided another important subject for Boston’s mapmakers, and several of the maps produced in the town documented land controversies. Featured here are examples relating to two such disputes: one between the “Plymouth Company” and “Brunswick Proprietors” over lands along the Maine coast, and another involving claimants to land around Elizabeth, New Jersey.

Richard Gridley
"Map No. I" from A Bill in the Chancery of New Jersey…, [1747]
Thomas Johnston
A True Coppy from an Ancient Plan of E. Hutchinson’s Esqgr…, [1753]
Thomas Johnston
… This Plan of Kennebeck, & Sagadahock Rivers, & Country Adjacent…, 1754